The expectancy theory of motivation

Basic Motivation Concepts What is Motivation?

The expectancy theory of motivation

We proofread, edit and make the paper upto mark without any flaws. Starting Rs The expectancy theory of motivation 10 pages. Expectancy theory of performance management system By Apara Bhattacharya on September 23, Performance management has been identified as a system that creates context for continuous monitoring and measuring activities of individual employees in a firm.

Similarly it also measures the performance of the entire organization so that organisational goals are met in an effective manner Lebas Key elements of expectancy theory Expectancy theory of performance management was proposed by Victor Vroom in According to him, individuals behave in a specific manner because they get motivated by the desirable outcome of such behaviour.

Performance of an individual should always be aligned with organisational expectations regarding achievement of identified goals in future Salaman et al. The motivation that influences individuals to behave in a particular manner over other forms of behaviour is their expectancy.

The expectancy theory of motivation

This expectancy is regarding the effect of the selected behaviour Oliver ; Salaman et al. Thus, this property helps individuals in determining if they have the required skill sets for accomplishing a work accurately.

However, when performance goals are beyond the achievement, the corresponding motivation also declines. However, when the instrumentality or reward for a number of organisational performances is same, motivation to perform different kinds of work declines.


Thus, individuals evaluate the rewards given to them for performance based on various aspects. This includes differential needs, values, goals and sources of motivation. On the basis of valence the motivations to accomplish different tasks also vary Burgoon ; Kroth Thus, while deciding to perform in a particular way, individuals give importance to the variable that has the greatest motivational force.

Application of expectancy theory Expectancy theory is applied practically in almost all types of organisations. This is primarily used in all aspects of employment relationship with the main focus on monitoring employee performance Eisenberger et al. Implementation of expectancy theory is seen in organisational processes such as recruitment and selection of employees for a particular job.

On the other hand this theory is also applied to identify the variables that motivate individual employees in the organisation.

Specifically, in case of recruitment and selection of employees, this theory helps in determining the motivators that influence people to join an organisation based on needs, goals and past experiences.

Motivation and Management

In case of assessment of organisational performance, this theory works towards interpreting the specific behaviour that the employees exhibit based on their individual expectancy calculations. Here it needs mentioning that expectancy theory also postulates that different people want different things from their organisation.

This range from good salary to job security to scopes for professional enrichment. Consequently, this theory helps to map behavioural outcome in respect of organisational training.

In other words this theory helps in identifying specific determiners behind a particular behavioural outcome of individual trainees Lunenburg Thus, the theory helps in interpreting individual psychologies. This in turn helps in recognising the individual motivators that influence people to make choices based on their specific expectations Kanfer ; Ramlall Moreover, this theory centres upon expectations of people and perceptions of the organisation about their corresponding organisational behaviour.

Therefore, it helps in making individual employees aware about organisational behaviour and consequent expectations from the organisation.

On the other hand, organisations are able to identify actual performance of their employees using this theory.

Expectancy Theory of Motivation

Limitation of expectancy theory Expectancy theory is often criticised for being too idealistic. The attributes for performance measurement in expectancy theory is motivation, employee effort, value of rewards, etc.The Expectancy theory states that employee’s motivation is an outcome of how much an individual wants a reward (Valence), the assessment that the likelihood that the effort will lead to expected performance (Expectancy) and the belief that the performance will lead to reward (Instrumentality).


The term motivation is derived from the Latin word movere, meaning "to move." Motivation can be broadly defined as the forces acting on or within a person that cause the arousal, direction, and persistence of goal-directed, voluntary effort. Motivation theory is thus concerned with the processes.

Overview. At a simple level, it seems obvious that people do things, such as go to work, in order to get stuff they want and to avoid stuff they don't want.

Vroom expectancy motivation theory | Employee motivation theories | YourCoach Gent

Expectancy theory in comparison to the other motivation theories. There is a useful link between Vroom's expectancy theory and Adam's Equity theory of motivation: namely that people will also compare outcomes for themselves with others. The Expectancy Theory (ET) of Victor Vroom deals with motivation and's theory assumes that behavior results from conscious choices among alternatives whose purpose it is to maximize pleasure and minimize pain.

We are motivated by things that are desirable, that we know how to get, and that we believe we are capable of getting.

Summary of Expectancy Theory - Vroom. Abstract