The Trinity is the belief in Christianity that God is one God in essence but three persons: Despite at least one earlier local synod rejecting the claim of Arius, this Christological issue was to be one of the items addressed at the First Council of Nicaea. The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea in present-day Turkeyconvoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I inwas the first ecumenical  council of bishops of the Roman Empireand most significantly resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrinecalled the Nicene Creed. With the creation of the creed, a precedent was established for subsequent general ecumenical councils of bishops synods to create statements of belief and canons of doctrinal orthodoxy — the intent being to define a common creed for the Church and address heretical ideas.
The idea of one true God, who is the creator of the world, has been a powerful force in crafting the self-identity and growth of the Abrahamic religionsas well as having galvanized the concept of a shared humanity that is united in religious brotherhood.
However, in many cases, the desire to assert the dominion of the allegedly one and only true God has often lead to violence and intolerance. Yet, for as long as humanity has been religious, monotheism has been an important category in the study and practice of religion.
Monotheism as a Category of Religion Monotheism is perhaps the most discussed and debated category of religious classification. Unlike other religious classifications, monotheism has often been associated with an "ideal" for which all religions should strive.
Many faiths have put forward great amounts of effort to champion monotheism, considering it to be the supreme form of religiosity. Monotheism has even been, on occasion, placed on a pedestal in academia—religious scholars and theologians viewed it for decades as the most "rational" way of conceiving of God —and often placed on an evolutionary hierarchy above more "primitive" ways of viewing divinity such as polytheism or animism.
The term "monotheism" was coined in by Henry Morea member of the Cambridge Platonistsin order to better organize and categorize religions on a continuum as progressing in an evolution from "primitive" levels such as animism through to polytheism, eventually ending up at monotheism.
Monotheism was seen as the most "civilized" notion for conceiving of divinity and placed at the top of this hierarchy. Although the theory of "Ur-monotheism" or original monotheism was put forward by Wilhelm Schmidt in a series of volumes beginning in to claim, in direct opposition to this evolutionary viewpoint, that monotheism was the original belief of humankind, and that subsequent beliefs such as polydaemonism and pantheismamong others, gradually arose out of the degeneration of this primordial monotheism, nevertheless this theory has been largely discredited in academic circles.
Early History Monotheism has been found in a variety of cultures around the world, and is not exclusive to technologically advanced societies. However, scholars dispute the exact origin of monotheism.
Some suggest that monotheism first arose in the religion of Zoroastrianism. Others have argued that Egypt was the birthplace of monotheism, while Jews often consider their religion to be the original form of monotheism.
Zoroastrianism Among these theories, Zoroastrianism has wide support for being the earliest example of monotheistic belief in history.
Zarathustra founded Zoroastrianism sometime during the long time-span between the eighteenth and sixth centuries B. In doing so, he unified the various notions of divinity found within these faiths into one all-encompassing deity called Ahura Mazda.
It is said that Ahura Mazda implements his will on the world by way of six angelsor Amesha Spentas, which represent indispensable moral principles.
Ahura Mazda is described as inherently good, just and moral, and as such creates only good things. As for the existence of evilthis is explained by two subsidiary spirits who Ahura Mazda is said to have fathered.
Spenta Manyu is the good one, while Angra Manyu is evil; because of the polarity of their natures, these two spirits were said to have feuded since the beginning of time. Thus, Ahura Mazda, while supreme, is not completely omnipotentas the realm of evil is beyond his control, an idea that lessens the extent to which Zoroastrianism can be considered genuinely monotheistic.
However, Ahura Mazda is consistently portrayed as victorious over evil, which marks him as the supreme entity.
Hence, Zoroastrianism can be considered dualistic monotheism, a subtype of monotheism where a monarchical God representing good stands opposed to less powerful evil forces.
Such monotheism remained prevalent in Zoroastrian belief as Zarathustra taught it; however, later teachings brought older Indo-Iranian gods back into the Zoroastrian mythologymarking it as distinctively polytheist.
Upon inheriting the throne, Akhenaten made the previously unheralded god Aten, synonymous with the solar disk, the single most powerful entity. In contrast to the previous gods that had been primarily the focus of public ritual in temples, Aten came to represent a more personal conception of the divine.
This lead to the iconoclastic destruction of idols dedicated to the other gods. Conceivably, the impetus for such actions was the belief that no other god was tantamount to their preferred deity.
Such a theology subtly acknowledges the existence of the other gods, but only as foes to be destroyed due to the fact that they draw attention away from the primary deity.
As such, this could be classified as monarchic monotheism, where one god is believed to reign supreme over many gods see also Henotheism.
The Middle East Zoroastrian and Egyptian monotheism had major influence on the monotheistic religions that would develop in the Middle East. Several archaeologists and biblical critics alike have posited the controversial claim that many stories in the Old Testament were actually developed by scribes employed by King Josiah seventh century B.
This theory observes that neighboring countries, such as Egypt and Persia, despite keeping written recordshad no writings about the stories of the Bible or its main characters before B. Thus, it seems that the Zoroastrian and Egyptian conception of singular divinity may have found its way into the Abrahamic traditions by way of these shared mythologies.In the Beginning God: A Fresh Look at the Case for Original Monotheism [Winfried Corduan] on initiativeblog.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
Christians believe that religion began when God created human beings and revealed himself to them. But is there scholarly evidence for this belief? In the nineteenth century academic world a . Odinani has monotheistic and panentheistic attributes, having a single God as the source of all things.
Although a pantheon of spirits exists, these are lesser spirits prevalent in Odinani expressly serving as elements of Chineke (or Chukwu), the supreme being or high god. As such it is distinguished from polytheism, the belief in the existence of a number of gods, and atheism, the denial of the belief in any god or gods at all.
The God of monotheism is the one real god that is believed to exist or, in any case, that is acknowledged as such. Question: "Can monotheism be proven?" Answer: The word “monotheism” comes from two words, “mono” meaning “single” and “theism” meaning “belief in God.” Specifically, monotheism is the belief in one true God who is the .
Western Concepts of God. Western concepts of God have ranged from the detached transcendent demiurge of Aristotle to the pantheism of Spinoza. Nevertheless, much of western thought about God has fallen within some broad form of theism.
God. This article focuses on the monotheistic concept of a singular God. The term God is ordinarily used to designate a singular, universal Supreme Being.