Zhu Yuanzhang would later rise to become the Hongwu Emperorthe first emperor of the Ming dynasty. Some contemporaries maintained, however, that Zhu Di's mother was a non- Han Chinese concubine of his father's,   and that the official records were changed during his reign to list him as a son of the Empress Ma in order to sanction his succession on the "death" of the Jianwen Emperor. The Mongols circulated a legend found in Altan Tobchi that the Yongle Emperor was the son of a Mongol empress who was pregnant with a Mongol child and captured after the Ming took over Beijing, and that she prayed that her pregnancy would be extended miraculously so the Hongwu Emperor would not suspect the child wasn't his, and that her pregnancy was extended by a miracle to 13 months instead of 9 months. This legend is disproven by the fact that it was only in when Beijing was captured and entered by the Hongwu Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang while the May 2, was the birthdate of the Yongle Emperor Zhu Di which was much earlier than the capture of Beijing.
The word "socialism" often implies two quite different phenomena: A doctrine and an appeal based on it, a program for changing life, and A social structure that exists in time and space. The most obvious examples include Marxism as contained in the "classic" writings of Marx and others and the social structure that exists in the U.
Among the fundamental principles of the state doctrine in these countries is the assertion that the connection between the two phenomena is very simple.
On the one hand, it is asserted, there is a scientific theory which proves that after achieving a definite level in the development of productive forces, mankind will pass over to a new historic formation; this theory points the way to the most rational paths for such a transition.
And on the other hand, we are assured, there is the embodiment of this scientific prognosis, its confirmation. As an example of quite a different point of view we cite H.
Wells, who visited Russia in and, though infected by the worship of socialism, fashionable then as now, nevertheless almost instinctively refused to accept Marxism, in this sense reflecting the antipathy toward all scholastic theories typical of an Englishman. In his book Russia in the Shadows, Wells writes: The state system established as a result is therefore defined and shaped by the necessity of holding power.
Since these tasks are entirely different, the official theory and the actual implementation have nothing in common. It would be incautious to take either of these assertions on faith.
On the contrary, it would be desirable, first, to study both "socialisms" independently, without any a priori hypotheses, and only then attempt to come to conclusions about the connections that exist between them.
We shall begin with socialism understood as a doctrine, as an appeal. All such doctrines and as we shall see, there were many of them have a common core--they are based on the complete rejection of the existing social structure.
They call for its destruction and paint a picture of a more just and happy society in which the solution to all the fundamental problems of the times would be found. Furthermore, they propose concrete ways of achieving this goal.
In religious literature such a system of views is referred to as belief in the thousand-year Kingdom of God on earth--chiliasm. Borrowing this terminology, we shall designate the socialist doctrines of this type as "chiliastic socialism.
In doing so, we shall attempt to extract a picture of the future society envisaged, leaving to one side for the moment the motivation as well as the concrete means recommended for achieving the ideal.
The first example takes us to Athens in B. Here he depicts a teaching fashionable in the Athens of the time.
The plot is as follows: They use this power to introduce a series of measures, which are expounded in a dialogue between Praxagora, the leader of the women, and her husband, Blepyros.
Here are several quotations. No more the division between Rich and Poor. My initial move will be to communalize land, and money, and all other property, personal and real. A system like this requires a pretty wise father to know his own children.
But why does he need to? Age is the new criterion: Children will henceforth trace their descent from all men who might have begot them.
This leaves you just one civic function: When the shades of night draw on, slip sleekly down to dinner. Let us attempt to specify the associations that arise by considering a second example--the classic statement of the Marxist program contained in the Communist Manifesto. Here are some quotations characterizing the future society as the authors imagine it: Abolition of private property.
Even the most radical Hare up at this infamous proposal of the Communists.Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years. We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state.
Get the latest international news and world events from Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and more. See world news photos and videos at initiativeblog.com As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria.
Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo. Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from initiativeblog.com And that too in Athens. The Achievements of Paul Kurtz Bill Cooke Paul Kurtz was born moral values are must in student life essay into a family with relatively recent memories of Russia and with a great moral values are must in student life essay enthusiasm Philosophical ethics (also called moral philosophy) is divided into three main areas of inquiry: (1) meta-ethics.
of the lipoleums, Toffeethief, that spy on the Willingdone from his big white harse, the Capeinhope. Stonewall Willingdone is an old maxy initiativeblog.comums is nice hung bushel- lors. This is hiena hinnessy laughing alout at the Willing- done.
This is lipsyg dooley krieging the funk from the hinnessy. This is the hinndoo Shimar Shin between . Youth. The Yongle Emperor was born Zhu Di (朱 棣) on 2 May , the fourth son of the new leader of the central Red Turbans, Zhu initiativeblog.com Yuanzhang would later rise to become the Hongwu Emperor, the first emperor of the Ming initiativeblog.coming to surviving Ming historical records, Zhu Di's mother was the Hongwu Emperor's primary .