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Approximately 59 million people speak Vietnamese worldwide. In addition to Vietnamese speakers living in Vietnam, a significant number of people speak Vietnamese overseas, notably in the United StatesFrance 10,and to a lesser extent in Canada, Australia, Senegal, and Cote d'Ivoire statistics.
Closer to home, Vietnamese is also widely used as a second language by many of the mountain-dwelling ethnic minorities and in neighboring countries like Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand. Vietnamese is one of approximately languages belonging to the Austro Asiatic family of languages.
Within the Austro-Asiatic family, three major branches are generally recognized. While Vietnamese and its sister language Muong form a group on their own, some scholars favor the inclusion of Vietnamese within the Mon-Khmer group.
Vietnamese Language Dialects Vietnamese is spoken in three dialects, corresponding to the three main regions of Vietnam: The Northern dialect forms the basis of the standard language and is the prestige dialect.
The dialects differ mainly in terms of pronunciation and to a limited extent in terms of the vocabulary. These dialect differences do not impede intelligibility among speakers of the different dialects, however.
Written Vietnamese Language While adopting many elements of the Chinese language, the Vietnamese people changed many Chinese words, gradually creating Han-Viet Chinese-Vietnamese which incorporated purely Vietnamese words.
Vietnamese was first written using modified Chinese characters when Vietnam was a province of China, from the second century BC until the tenth century. During the medieval period, from the fourteenth to the seventeenth centuries, Buddhist scholars and priests developed a writing system based on Chinese characters.
This script, called chu nom, used combinations or digraphs of Chinese characters; one component gave the meaning and the other component signaled the pronunciation. In the mid-seventeenth century, the Roman script modified by diacritics to mark tones and certain vowels was introduced by Catholic missionaries.
By the end of the nineteenth century, the French administration encouraged the use of chu quoc nom by all segments of society.
They campaigned for the use of chu quoc ngu by the press, advocated sending students to France to study, collected and translated chu nom literature into chu quoc ngu, and compiled a modern Vietnamese dictionary.
Vietnamese Language Tones and Speech Patterns Vietnamese is a tone language; that is, the meaning of words and sentences is affected by the pitch with which they are spoken.
The tones in Vietnamese are mid-level, low falling, high rising, low, rising after an initial dip, high broken and low broken. There is no inflection in Vietnamese so nouns and verbs are not marked for things such as subject agreement and tense or number, grammatical gender, and case.
Nouns are marked by special classifiers. There are classifiers that mark inanimate objects, animate objects, vehicles, books, people, and important people, for example. Reduplication and compounding are common phenomena.
In a reduplicated form, the entire word may be repeated or just a portion of it. Reduplication may indicate plural, extension, or repetition of a state or intensity.
Names of birds, insects, plants, and fruits are often reduplicated, too. Sentences in Vietnamese have subject-verb-object word order. Because there is so little inflection, the language depends on strict word order to convey meaning.Product Types: Search thousands of products for hundreds of languages.
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The main way to start is to write an outline. Then do research about martial arts books and answer for yourself, and for an agent or editor, why your martial arts book is different from other martial arts books. Art & Entertainment In “A journey to find Ancient Vietnamese writing,” author Do Van Xuyen attempts to decode an ancient Vietnamese writing system – the writing of a brilliant civilization from the dynasty of the Hung Kings who built up the Van Lang Country.
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Nguyen Du Died at 54 () Nguyễn Du is a celebrated Vietnamese poet who wrote in chữ nôm, the ancient writing script of Vietnam.
He is most known for writing the epic poem The Tale of Kiều. Quill provides free writing and grammar activities for middle and high school students.