Back to Table of Contents Christians from most church traditions are agreed that the Bible plays an essential role in determining our understanding of such commands and principles. And it is not hard to find Bible verses that speak about work.
Changing Modern Moral Philosophy a. Anscombe In Elisabeth Anscombe published a paper titled "Modern Moral Philosophy" that changed the way we think about normative theories. A law conception of ethics deals exclusively with obligation and duty.
Among the theories she criticized for their reliance on universally applicable principles were J. This approach to ethics relies on universal principles and results in a Ethics research paper topics moral code.
Further, these rigid rules are based on a notion of obligation that is meaningless in modern, secular society because they make no sense without assuming the existence of a lawgiveran assumption we no longer make. In its place, Anscombe called for a return to a different way of doing philosophy.
Taking her inspiration from Aristotle, she called for a return to concepts such as character, virtue and flourishing. She also emphasized the importance of the emotions and understanding moral psychology. The resulting body of theories and ideas has come to be known as virtue ethics.
Before we go on to consider this in detail, we need to take a brief look at two other philosophers, Bernard Williams and Alasdair MacIntyre, whose call for theories of virtue was also instrumental in changing our understanding of moral philosophy.
Williams criticized how moral philosophy had developed.
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He drew a distinction between morality and ethics. Morality is characterized mainly by the work of Kant and notions such as duty and obligation. Crucially associated with the notion of obligation is the notion of blame.
Blame is appropriate because we are obliged to behave in a certain way and if we are capable of conforming our conduct and fail to, we have violated our duty. Williams was also concerned that such a conception for morality rejects the possibility of luck. If morality is about what we are obliged to do, then there is no room for what is outside of our control.
But sometimes attainment of the good life is dependant on things outside of our control. In response, Williams takes a wider concept, ethics, and rejects the narrow and restricting concept of morality. Ethics encompasses many emotions that are rejected by morality as irrelevant. Ethical concerns are wider, encompassing friends, family and society and make room for ideals such as social justice.
This view of ethics is compatible with the Ancient Greek interpretation of the good life as found in Aristotle and Plato.
MacIntyre Finally, the ideas of Alasdair MacIntyre acted as a stimulus for the increased interest in virtue. However, he also attempts to give an account of virtue. MacIntyre looks at a large number of historical accounts of virtue that differ in their lists of the virtues and have incompatible theories of the virtues.
He concludes that these differences are attributable to different practices that generate different conceptions of the virtues.
Each account of virtue requires a prior account of social and moral features in order to be understood. Thus, in order to understand Homeric virtue you need to look its social role in Greek society.
Virtues, then, are exercised within practices that are coherent, social forms of activity and seek to realize goods internal to the activity.
The virtues enable us to achieve these goods. That end is the virtue of integrity or constancy. These three writers have all, in their own way, argued for a radical change in the way we think about morality. Whether they call for a change of emphasis from obligation, a return to a broad understanding of ethics, or a unifying tradition of practices that generate virtues, their dissatisfaction with the state of modern moral philosophy lay the foundation for change.
A Rival for Deontology and Utilitarianism There are a number of different accounts of virtue ethics. It is an emerging concept and was initially defined by what it is not rather than what it is.
The next section examines claims virtue ethicists initially made that set the theory up as a rival to deontology and consequentialism. How Should One Live?
Moral theories are concerned with right and wrong behavior. This subject area of philosophy is unavoidably tied up with practical concerns about the right behavior.
However, virtue ethics changes the kind of question we ask about ethics. Where deontology and consequentialism concern themselves with the right action, virtue ethics is concerned with the good life and what kinds of persons we should be.
What kind of person should I be? Instead of asking what is the right action here and now, virtue ethics asks what kind of person should one be in order to get it right all the time.Apr 17, · Business ethics include many different topics grouped around duties, morality, integrity, behaviour, what is good and bad for company, employees and society as a whole.
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If you're interested in a specific aspect of the topic, . Research within librarian-selected research topics on Ethics from the Questia online library, including full-text online books, academic journals, magazines, newspapers and more.
AEJMC Code of Ethics Research Recommended Ethical Research Guidelines for AEJMC Members(1) Unanimously Approved by the Standing Committee on Research, August 11,